RDP Glossary

Chosen return See decided return  
Compelled return In the framework of the RDP, refers to a migrant who returns to his/her country of origin as a result of unfavourable circumstances and factors which abruptly interrupt the migration cycle. Enforced return is a form of compelled return. Compelled return is the opposite of decided or chosen return.  
Decided return In the framework of the RDP, refers to a migrant who decides on his own initiative to go back to the country of origin, without any form of pressure or coercion whatsoever. Decided return is based on the free will of the migrant to return. Decided return is a synonym of chosen return. It differs from voluntary return.  
Enforced return The compulsory return of a migrant to the country of origin as a result of an administrative or judicial act adopted by the public authorities of the destination country and ordering the removal of a person out of the national territory. In the framework of the RDP, enforced return is a form of expulsion.  
Expulsion Administrative or judicial procedure aimed at removing by force a person out of a national territory.  
Financial capital Capital (funds and remittances) acquired by the migrant.  
Human capital Skills, know-how, training and new values acquired by the migrants and allowing him/her to act differently (Coleman, 1988).  
Intention to re-emigrate In the framework of the RDP, refers to a returnee who plans to leave again for abroad, whether the intention is real or not.  
Main country of immigration (MCI) In the framework of the research activities of the RDP, refers to the country of destination where the respondent stayed for longer.  
Permanent return The return to the country of origin on a long-term basis.  
Post-return conditions Factors and circumstances inherent in migrants’ post-return experience in their country of origin, whether return is temporary or permanent.  
Pre-return conditions Factors and circumstances inherent in migrants’ experience of migration before returning to the country of origin.  
Readmission “Act by a state accepting the re-entry of an individual (own nationals, third-country nationals or stateless persons), who has been found illegally entering to, being present in or residing in another state.” Coucil of the European Union, Ref. 14673/02, 25 November 2002.  
Re-emigration When a returnee re-emigrates, he or she leaves for abroad and at least three months after having returned to the country of origin.  
Reintegration Process through which a return migrant participates in the social cultural economic and political life of his/her country of origin.  
Resource mobilisation Process through which a migrant gathers resources, whether tangible or intangible, before and after return. This process is part and parcel of return preparedness.  
Return Process through which a person goes back to her/his own country of origin, on a temporary or permanent basis, after having lived abroad for at least one year.  
Returnee See return migrant  
Return migrant In the framework of the research activities of the RDP, refers to a person who returns to his/her country of origin, in the course of the last ten years, after having been an international migrant (whether short-term or long-term) in another country. Stay in the country of return must be longer than three months. Return may be permanent or temporary.  
Return preparedness Process taking place in the framework of the return to the country of origin. There exist various levels of return preparedness shaping migrants’ socioprofessional and cultural reintegration in their country of origin.  
Seasonal migrant Person who emigrates to be employed for only part of the year because the work performed depends on seasonal conditions.  
Social capital Social relationships and family connections facilitating the migrant’s actions and goals (Coleman, 1988).  
Temporary migrant Person who emigrates for a period of at least three months in order to be employed abroad on a short-term basis.  
Temporary return The return to the country of origin on a short-term basis and for a period of at least three months.  
Visit The short stay in the country of origin (less than three months) motivated, for example, by cultural and family reasons.  
Voluntary return In practice, and more often than not, so-called “voluntary” return stems from an explicit or implicit pressure exerted by a state authority on a migrant, even if the Council of the European Union defines voluntary return as “the assisted or independent departure to the country of origin, transit or another third country based on the will of the returnee. (ref. 14673/02, 25 November 2002).[1] In the framework of the RDP, voluntary return starkly differs from decided or chosen return.  

[1] As mentioned in the report written by the European Migration Network (EMN), “it is important to note, however, that there is no clear boundary between Voluntary and Forced Return, since there are different understandings of these terms by the Member States and it sometimes depends on the legal status of a returnee (legal or illegally resident). Whether return can truly be considered as voluntary […] is another consideration”, European Migration Network, “Return Migration”, EMN Synthesis Report, EMN, Brussels, May 2007, p. 6.