Cicli migratori sempre più precari e incerti (by Davide Calenda) This short analytical note shows that the migration cycles of migrants who have emigrated and returned to their country of origin in the last ten-twenty years are more precarious and uncertain if we compare with the cycles of previous generations. The analysis is based on more than 2000 interviews with return migrants from Armenia, Algeria, Mali, Morocco and Tunisia. (in Italian only)
Famille, capital social et réintégration socioprofessionnelle des migrants de retour au Mali (by Davide Calenda) The aim of this study is to shed light on how the socioeconomic and professional reintegration of return migrants in Mali is influenced by the interplay between family ties, social capital and political participation of return migrants.
Return migration to Mali: Examining definitions and statistical sources (by Davide Calenda) The study investigates the definitions of return migration adopted by national censuses and large-scale surveys in Mali and the sources of official data. A section is devoted to so-called “enforced return”.
A Statistical Overview of Return Migration to the Republic of Armenia (by Annett Fleischer) The study examines the statistical situation on return migration to the Republic of Armenia. It takes into account the data available in the countries of destination and in the country of origin.
Return Migrants to the Maghreb Countries: Reintegration and Development Challenges (edited by Jean-Pierre Cassarino) Based on a sample of around one thousand interviews with returnees in Morocco Algeria and Tunisia, the report sets out to determine the manifold factors shaping return migrants’ patterns of reintegration. Its novelty lies, among others, in making a distinction between migrants who decided to return and those who were compelled to do so. Actually, as the collected data were gradually processed and analysed, it turned out that this distinction was key to understanding migrants’ patterns of social and professional reintegration.
A Comparative Study of Return Migration Policies Targeting The Highly Skilled In Four Major Sending Countries (by Koen Jonkers) This report is an attempt to provide a provisional comparative analysis of policies implemented in China, Indi a, Argentina, and Mexico to facilitate the return of highly skilled expatriates and their professional reintegration. These countries differ in terms of the outbound and return flows of highly skilled professionals, as well as in the timing and intensity of the programs they have implemented.
La migration de retour en Tunisie (by Abderrazak Bel Haj Zekri) L’émigration de la main-d’oeuvre se concevait comme phénomène situé à l’intérieur d’un cycle dont le terme serait le retour de l’émigré au pays d’origine. C’est pourquoi le retour définitif et la réinsertion se placent dans le cadre de ce processus large : l’ensemble des circonstances ayant incité l’individu à émigrer ainsi que les conditions de son séjour dans le pays d’accueil déterminent inévitablement la réussite de son projet de réinsertion.
The EU return policy: Premises and Implications (by Jean-Pierre Cassarino) It has become clear that, in order to ensure the effectiveness of its return policy, the EU will have to perform a balancing act between the security concerns of some Member States and the need to respond in a credible manner to the pressing development-oriented expectations of some (strategic) third countries.
International and intergovernmental recommendations, resolutions and decisions regarding the return of persons A comprehensive and annotated list of the most important international declarations and resolutions related to return and the rights of returnees, from the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights to date.
La migration de retour au Maroc : Une approche socio-économique et institutionnelle (par Mehdi Lahlou) This analytical report sets out to determine the current priorities of the Moroccan government in the field of migration management, including the return of Moroccan migrants. The author enumerates the socioeconomic factors shaping the initiatives of the Moroccan institutions in charge of dealing with migration issues and explains the extent to which the return issue is taken into consideration in the framework of their actions.
Migration de retour au Maroc : une approche socio-économique et institutionnelle (by Khachani, Mohamed)
Mineurs marocains non accompagnés : Quelle réalité pour le retour? (par Naima Baba) Based on empirical observations and field surveys carried out in Morocco with repatriated unaccompanied minors, this report sheds light on the patterns of reintegration and return conditions of a category of returnees that remains to be further studied.
Migrant de retour en Algérie. Une nouvelle stratégie en perspective ? (par Mohamed Saib Musette) Ce n’est qu’à partir d’une saisie globale de la migration internationale, tant dans sa réalité que dans sa conformité aux normes et aux engagements internationaux de l’Algérie, qu’il serait possible d’élaborer une stratégie nouvelle de la politique migratoire.
Losses and Gains to Developing Countries from the Migration of Educated Workers: An Overview of Recent Research, and New Reflections (by Stark, Oded and C. Simon Fan) This paper synthesizes and extends recent research on “The New Economics of the Brain Drain.” In a unified framework, the paper shows that while recently identified adverse repercussions of the brain drain exacerbate the long-recognized negative impact of the brain drain, longer-term consequences turn the brain drain into the harbinger of powerful gains. These gains have been studied already in recent research, or merit attention in future research.
Britain and Algeria: Problems of Return (by George Joffé) The British government admits that the efficacy of its return policy has been very limited, although domestic pressure has led to a much more concerted effort to return failed asylum seekers in recent years. However, the bare statistics must be seen against the growth of British security policies since 2001 and particularly since 2005. Fears of terrorism in Britain linked to the Algerian community here have led to a disproportionate arrest rate amongst Algerians, particularly in the recent trial, the indefinite detention of Algerians on suspicion of involvement in terrorism without trial, agreements about mutual extradition, memoranda of understanding over the return of Algerians allegedly involved in terrorist activities and much closer cooperation between British and Algerian security services. This securitisation process has made the return of Algerians to Algeria much more problematic and has brought into question the British government’s commitment to its obligations within the European Union.
Return Migration and Working Choices (By Massimiliano Tani & Stéphane Mahuteau) This paper uses the MIREM survey on return migrants to study the duration of emigration and the labour force status upon returning. The results suggest that age and the year of emigration play a central role in the migration decision, but they do not support the hypothesis that the duration of migration is determined by the desired labour market status upon returning home.
Return Migration and Small Enterprise Development in the Maghreb (By Flore Gubert and Christophe J. Nordman) This study takes advantage of the MIREM survey to analyze returnees’ entrepreneurial behaviour in Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. It sets out to understand whether and to what extent the interviewees’ situation prior to migration and their experience of migration has impacted their propensity to engage in entrepreneurial activity. The point is to shed light on some of the following questions: are financial capital and new skills acquired abroad used productively back home? What are the characteristics of the returnees’ investment projects upon return? How is entrepreneurial behaviour related to migrant characteristics and overseas experience? Is there a link between migration duration and after-return activity?
Who Benefits Most from Migration? An Empirical Analysis Using Data on Return Migrants in the Maghreb (By Flore Gubert and Christophe J. Nordman) From a theoretical standpoint, it is generally assumed that migration results from a utility maximization process, i.e. that people migrate to be better off. The purpose of this paper is to explore this assumption by comparing the situation of migrants after they move to their situation before they move and by examining their post-migration subjective well-being using data from a survey on return migrants simultaneously conducted in Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia in 2006 as part of the MIREM project.
La migration de retour en Tunisie: Aspects juridique (by Monia Ben Jemia) This study proposes to analyse the main legal aspects linked to Tunisia’s current return mechanisms as applied to autonomous return and enforced return.